Indecision can be considered a totally indecisive characteristic. But as the investigations indicate that, in truth, you can rise to more intelligent ponderações.
In the television series The Good PlaceThe character Chidi Anagonye is defined by his incapacidade de tomar come decisões mais simples – desde o que comer até declarar seu amor por sua alma gêmea.
A própria idea of making a school, many times, resulta in sérias dores de estômago. He is caught up in his permanent “analysis paralysis”.
Nós ficamos conhecendo Chidi na vida após a morte, e a serie nos prova que foi a indecisão que colocou fim à sua vida. He was parado na rua, in an interminable hesitation to decide which bar he should go to with his melhor friend, when um ar-condicionado cai do apartamento sobre a cabeça of him, matando-o instantaneously.
“Sabe o som de um garfo no triturador de lixo? É o som que o meu cérebro faz todo o tempo,” says Chidi in a serial episode. And, além de fazê-lo infeliz, a falta de confiança do personagem nos seus próprios julgamentos enlouquece as pessoas à in volta.
He looks like an exaggerated version of your own self, so you know you’re not sozinho. Indecision is a common feature. How many people weigh very quickly, there are other difficulties to evaluate the options and you can avoid making any decisions.
Who show that indecision can be linked to problems such as anxiety, but recent surveys indicate that it can also be a positive side.
It is ours protected from common cognitive errors, such as avenues of confirmation. Therefore, when a person has finally concluded his analysis, generally his decision is smarter than what people want to achieve quickly.
The secret is to learn when to hope and when to break the paralyzing inércia.
O inimigo, do it well
Psychologists have several equipments to meditate or grau de indecision.
One of the two most common questionnaires is the Escala de Indecisão de Frost, in which participants obtain a series of statements on a scale of 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree). As these include:
– Tento postergar a tomada de decisões;
– Tenho dificuldade de planjar meu tempo livre;
– Fico frequently worried com tomar decisões erradas;
– It seems that I take a long time to decide on these trivia.
Using this scale, psychologists show that indecision is often the result of perfectionism. Perfectionists try to overcome or stop what they can do to make a bad decision.
Consequently, postpone the decision to make certain decisions. And, in some cases, there’s simply nothing you can do to trust.
Current frustration can be a barrier to happiness. Generally, the higher avaliação in the escala, the less it will be a satisfaction with a life, according to a study by psychology professor Eric Rassin, of the Universidade Erasmus, in the Netherlands.
They are less inclined to agree with statements such as “the conditions of life are excellent”, for example, or “if one could start one’s life from scratch, one would not change nearly nothing”.
Jump to the conclusions
To juggle these results, the indecisiveness seems to be a totally undesirable characteristic.
But recent investigations indicate that the difficulty in making a rapid decision – which is more discouraging than that – can also be done on a positive side, therefore it protects the people of certain important cognitive lives.
As evidenced by the benefits come from a recent trabalho by investigator Jana-Maria Hohnsbehn and by professor of social psychology Iris Schneider, from the Technical University of Dresden, in Germany.
After using the Escala de Indecisão de Frost, Hohnsbehn and Schneider focused on the average of “ambivalência de características”, which examines more specifically the thoughts and feelings subjacentis à tomada de decisões das pessoas (ou sua ausência).
Pediu-se às pessoas, for example, who avail them of signatures like:
– My thoughts are frequently contradictory;
– Muitas vezes, sinto-me dividido entre dois lados de uma questão;
– Às vezes, when I think of an assumption, I almost felt like it was summering me moving um side to outro.
“Se essas afirmações encontrarem ressonância, provavelmente temos ambivalência de características em alto grau,” says Hohnsbehn.
It is hoped that people will achieve a high degree of ambivalence of characteristics at a greater level of time to make decisions. Mas Hohnsbehn and Schneider conclude that they are less sujeitas a vieses in loro julgamentos.
In one experiment, for example, watch participants be confronted with a series of centuries, like this one:
Get to know a person and enjoy finding out if they are introverted or extroverted. Você credits that a person is extroverted. Quais das perguntas abaixo você faria para ela?
– Você gosta de ficar sozinho(a) em casa?;
– Você gosta de ir para festas?
Many people hear the second question, but this is a confirmatory avenues sign – you’re trying to get information that you think you agree with what you’re credited with, and you’re not looking for evidence of what you may be wrong.
Hohnsbehn and his colleagues conclude that people with a high degree of ambivalence of characteristics were less likely to esse viés. Elas decider questionar belief of her, to be sure that there is the information necessary to obtain a correct answer.
In the last experiment, the participants learned about a functional, or sr. Müller, queria queria renew his contract de trabalho. After a preliminary decision on how to behave or not. Müller no cargo, participants receive additional affirmations on ele de especialistas no setor.
Some of these statements agreed with the participants’ initial decisions and others, did not. The task of the participants was to gain credibility and importance for each of these statements.
Hohnsbehn and Schneider conclude that people with a high degree of ambivalence were more likely to stay open-minded to claims contrary to their initial viewpoint, and his rating of credibility and importance was even higher, even though theirs was low. ambivalence of characteristics eram mais disposes a menosprezá-las.
His conclusions are important, because confirmatory pathways are one of our two most common cognitive errors. What prevents us from rationally analyzing the evidence in all aspects of life, from personal relationships to our political views.
The ambivalence of features helps us protect this kind of overly simplistic thinking – and it can help us with other forms as well.
Schneider’s studies indicate, for example, that people have a high degree of ambivalence about characteristics even less inclined to “paths of correspondence”, which tend to ignore or contest the behavior of some people and, in this case, attribute noise and success directly às próprias pessoas.
To give a direct example: if someone flows, or the ways of correspondence may not lead to the conclusion that he is inherently desajeitado (internal factor), sem reconhecer que o piso pode estar escorregadio (external factor).
Correspondence routes can also make us consider some learning difficulties simply due to lack of intelligence, when considering financial difficulties or family responsibilities.
People with a high degree of feature ambivalence are more likely to reconcile these other factors than do people who play quick and confidant.
Action on the injection
Hohnsbehn inquiries should be reported by yourself if you are feeling impatient with your inability to accept a quick decision.
“A general experiência de ser ambivalente precise ser aceita”, sugere ela. “She can give us the necessary pause, sinalising that things are complex and that we specify that we dedicate ourselves to thinking more carefully, more time, over our decision.”
Only when they process if it becomes excessive, we come to deal with problems. “As the majority of these questions require, there is a balance that must be precisely achieved”, Hohnsbehn adds.
This may explain why undecided people were, many times, more easily rated in terms of life satisfaction. His ambivalence, like dealing with important discoveries, is devastating.
A simple average may have a time limit set on his final decision, so as not to spend time ruminating about how different options offer new perspectives.
Depending on the type of problem you’re tackling, Hohnsbehn sugere atéconsiderar uma série de tarefas – like spending two hours researching new information, say, before spending a certain amount of time deliberating.
If you, too, have felt paralyzed, you can find inspiration in a study by economist Steven Levitt, of the University of Chicago, USA, which examines people’s overall happiness after making major life changes.
Levitt is one of two authors of the book Freakonomics and created a site where people would describe different dilemmas that we were dealing with in their lives – from making a tattoo until they move from home, turn to study or request a request. Pede-se enão aos participants que joguem cara-ou-coroa so that the result defines whether or not they have an aptitude.
After accompanying the participants over the months that followed, Levitt concluded that many people had corridos or riscos. When a moeda said que eles deveriam continuar in fronte, a maioria fez a mudança de vida.
E eles relataram estar distant mais felizes do que aqueles que continuaram como estavam (regardless of the result do cara-ou-coroa), sem sair do emprego, mudar-se ou fazer aquela tatuagem.
We might assume that, prior to the study, most of the participants thought carefully about the situation at hand, but their concerns about doing a study mission prevented them from taking any chances or taking chances. I add something simply as an endorsement for him to finally overcome his ambivalence.
A moral of the study, portanto, is not that we must base all the decisions on a result of cara-ou-coroa. But who overcomes doubt and hesitation can make the voice ever more happy than imagined.
“Uma boa regra geral na tomada de decisões é que, semper que você não conseguir decidir o que fazer, escolha ação representing a change, em vez de manter o seu status quo” concludes Levitt.
Como Chidi em The Good Placewe can ponder all the pros and cons of each situation and this ambivalence will help us make more intelligent decisions.
But, after ambivalent thinking has acquired its function, it is necessary to learn it instead of work – with the certainty that any decision is made frequently is better than no lessons.
*David Robson is a science writer and book author The effect of expectation: how your thought can transform your life (translation livre do inglês).
Read the original version of this reportage (in English) on the BBC Worklife site.
– Text originally published am https://www.bbc.com/portuguese/geral-63788527